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However, which properties are added to a surface and to what degree depends upon which of the 7 forms are applied, and further upon the amounts and types of diluents added to reduce the cost of production.
In the Association of German Engineers, VDI , the largest engineering association in Western Europe issued an authoritative report VDI  in order to clarify the existing multiplicity of confusing terms and trade names.
It provides a unique classification and nomenclature for diamond-like-carbon DLC and diamond films. It succeeded in reporting all information necessary to identify and to compare different DLC films which are offered on the market.
Quoting from that document:. These [sp 3 ] bonds can occur not only with crystals - in other words, in solids with long-range order - but also in amorphous solids where the atoms are in a random arrangement.
In this case there will be bonding only between a few individual atoms and not in a long-range order extending over a large number of atoms.
The bond types have a considerable influence on the material properties of amorphous carbon films.
If the sp 2 type is predominant the film will be softer, if the sp 3 type is predominant the film will be harder.
A secondary determinant of quality was found to be the fractional content of hydrogen. Some of the production methods involve hydrogen or methane as a catalyst and a considerable percentage of hydrogen can remain in the finished DLC material.
When it is recalled that the soft plastic, polyethylene is made from carbon that is bonded purely by the diamond-like sp 3 bonds, but also includes chemically bonded hydrogen, it is not surprising to learn that fractions of hydrogen remaining in DLC films degrade them almost as much as do residues of sp 2 bonded carbon.
The VDI report confirmed the utility of locating a particular DLC material onto a 2-dimensional map on which the X-axis described the fraction of hydrogen in the material and the Y-axis described the fraction of sp 3 bonded carbon atoms.
That "pure" DLC material is ta-C and others are approximations that are degraded by diluents such as hydrogen, sp 2 bonded carbon, and metals.
Valuable properties of materials that are ta-C , or nearly ta-C follow. Within the "cobblestones", nodules, clusters, or "sponges" the volumes in which local bonding is sp 3 bond angles may be distorted from those found in either pure cubic or hexagonal lattices because of intermixing of the two.
The result is internal compressive stress that can appear to add to the hardness measured for a sample of DLC.
Hardness is often measured by nanoindentation methods in which a finely pointed stylus of natural diamond is forced into the surface of a specimen.
If the sample is so thin that there is only a single layer of nodules, then the stylus may enter the DLC layer between the hard cobblestones and push them apart without sensing the hardness of the sp 3 bonded volumes.
Measurements would be low. Conversely, if the probing stylus enters a film thick enough to have several layers of nodules so it cannot be spread laterally, or if it enters on top of a cobblestone in a single layer, then it will measure not only the real hardness of the diamond bonding, but an apparent hardness even greater because the internal compressive stress in those nodules would provide further resistance to penetration of the material by the stylus.
Since the stylus is blunted in such cases or even broken, actual numbers for hardness that exceed that of natural diamond are meaningless.
They only show that the hard parts of an optimal ta-C material will break natural diamond rather than the inverse. Nevertheless, from a practical viewpoint it does not matter how the resistance of a DLC material is developed, it can be harder than natural diamond in usage.
One method of testing the coating hardness is by means of the Persoz pendulum. The same internal stress that benefits the hardness of DLC materials makes it difficult to bond such coatings to the substrates to be protected.
The internal stresses try to "pop" the DLC coatings off of the underlying samples. This challenging downside of extreme hardness is answered in several ways, depending upon the particular "art" of the production process.
The most simple is to exploit the natural chemical bonding that happens in cases in which incident carbon ions supply the material to be impacted into sp 3 bonded carbon atoms and the impacting energies that are compressing carbon volumes condensed earlier.
In this case the first carbon ions will impact the surface of the item to be coated. If that item is made of a carbide -forming substance such as Ti or Fe in steel a layer of carbide will be formed that is later bonded to the DLC grown on top of it.
Other methods of bonding include such strategies as depositing intermediate layers that have atomic spacings that grade from those of the substrate to those characteristic of sp 3 bonded carbon.
DLC coatings are often used to prevent wear due to their excellent tribological properties. DLC is very resistant to abrasive and adhesive wear making it suitable for use in applications that experience extreme contact pressure, both in rolling and sliding contact.
DLC is often used to prevent wear on razor blades and metal cutting tools, including lathe inserts and milling cutters. DLC is used in bearings , cams , cam followers, and shafts in the automobile industry.
The coatings reduce wear during the 'break-in' period, where drive train components may be starved for lubrication.
DLCs may also be used in chameleon coatings that are designed to prevent wear during launch, orbit, and re-entry of land-launched space vehicles.
DLC provides lubricity at ambient atmosphere and at vacuum unlike graphite, which requires moisture to be lubricious.
Isolated carbon particles embedded diamond-like carbon coatings are the recent development  in this area. The isolated particles were in-situ created through rapid plasma quenching with Helium pulses.
Despite the favorable tribological properties of DLC it must be used with caution on ferrous metals. If it is used at higher temperatures, the substrate or counter face may carburize , which could lead to loss of function due to a change in hardness.
The final, end use temperature of a coated component should be kept below the temperature at which a PVC DLC coating is applied. If a DLC material is close enough to ta-C on plots of bonding ratios and hydrogen content it can be an insulator with a high value of resistivity.
Perhaps more interesting is that if prepared in the "medium" cobblestone version such as shown in the above figure, electricity is passed through it by a mechanism of hopping conductivity.
In this type of conduction of electricity the electrons move by quantum mechanical tunneling between pockets of conductive material isolated in an insulator.
The result is that such a process makes the material something like a semiconductor. Further research on electrical properties is needed to explicate such conductivity in ta-C in order to determine its practical value.
However, a different electrical property of emissivity has been shown to occur at unique levels for ta-C.
Such high values allow for electrons to be emitted from ta-C coated electrodes into vacuum or into other solids with application of modest levels of applied voltage.
This has supported important advances in medical technology. Applications of DLC typically utilize the ability of the material to reduce abrasive wear.
Tooling components, such as endmills , drill bits , dies and molds often use DLC in this manner. DLC is also used in the engines of modern supersport motorcycles, Formula 1 racecars, NASCAR vehicles, and as a coating on hard-disk platters and hard-disk read heads to protect against head crashes.
Virtually all of the multi-bladed razors used for wet shaving have the edges coated with hydrogen-free DLC to reduce friction, preventing abrasion of sensitive skin.
Some forms have been certified in the EU for food service and find extensive uses in the high-speed actions involved in processing novelty foods such as potato chips and in guiding material flows in packaging foodstuffs with plastic wraps.
DLC coats the cutting edges of tools for the high-speed, dry shaping of difficult exposed surfaces of wood and aluminium , for example on automobile dashboards.
The wear, friction, and electrical properties of DLC make it an appealing material for medical applications. Fortunately, DLC has proved to have excellent bio-compatibility as well.
This has enabled many medical procedures, such as Percutaneous coronary intervention employing brachytherapy to benefit from the unique electrical properties of DLC.
At low voltages and low temperatures electrodes coated with DLC can emit enough electrons to be arranged into disposable, micro-X-ray tubes as small as the radioactive seeds that are introduced into arteries or tumors in conventional brachytherapy.
The same dose of prescribed radiation can be applied from the inside, out with the additional possibility to switch on and off the radiation in the prescribed pattern for the X-rays being used.
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The main character tries their best to improve their own skills not just for their own sake, but for the sake of their team, friends, and their seniors on the team who have dedicated so much.
I also make this recommendation because I really enjoyed both, so I thought that others would find a similar connection between them. Both about sports, passion, deep friendship, guts and drive to achieve anything.
Major S6 add permalink. However Major focusses more on the protagonist while diamond no ace goes more in depth into the entire team.
Baby Steps add permalink. They are similar in that they are both diamonds in the rough in their respected sports but with hard work and dedication, they begin to make names for themselves.
Note: Although Baby Steps has recently started first episode came out on April 6, , I have read most of the manga so that is how I am able to make this recommendation.
I'll edit this as more episodes come out. Kuroko no Basket 3rd Season add permalink. Both are sports. Highly visual. Beautiful animation.
Compelling story. Fun characters. Major S2 add permalink. The Kaido arc in Major is basically all of Diamond no Ace.
Both are baseball animes with an overenthusiastic, wild pitcher as the main character. Naruto add permalink. The main characters are both fools who want to reach for the top of their respective fields.
They usually use their innate talent and determination to break through the barriers set by their peers, who look down on them. The main characters are arrogant and see themselves in high regards.
All of their teammates see themselves as on their level or above their level. There's that girl who admires the ignorant main character without their knowledge.
The main character is a hard worker working his way from the the ground up ais a underdog that experiences failures but keeps getting back up.
Black Clover add permalink. This is special recom for Asta fans. And here is why: - Main character is same emotional and very loud - There are also others very loud players - Both Asta and Eijun are stubborn and oh well In both animes there is the loud main character Asta and Sawamura and the silent rival Yuno and Furuya.
Asta has no magic but has a sword, and Sawamura doesn't have an good fastball but he has an moving ball. Yuno has an four leaf clover grimoire, and Furuya has an amazing fastball.
Captain Tsubasa add permalink. Just like Tsubasa - Eijun Sawamura is the best player in his hometown. But what will happen if he collides with higher caliber players in big town?
Will his dream come true? Will he be an ACE? Animations are similar, the pace is very similar to original Captain Tsubasa series, there are a lot of "special moves" same like in CT.
Diamond no Ace is one of top sports anime. It has already two seasons with huge number of episodes!
It's all about sport, friendship and hard work. If you like Captain Tsubasa series there is no way that you will not like Diamond no Ace.
Major 2nd TV add permalink. Both shows are about baseball. When Major 2nd is still "young" series Diamond no Ace already got episodes.
If you like Major 2nd then you will be more than happy to watch Diamond no Ace because it's better and more mature series. Diamond no Ace has better animations and voice actors did great job there.
Grand Blue add permalink. First you may say what are similarities of those anime if they are totally different genres?
Well there are some, first it's sense of humour and lot's of jokes. Another one is that both of them are anime about young people that are exploring and learning life in different ways.
And oh last but not least Sawamura is loud person, same like many of characters used in Grand Blue series. Ballroom e Youkoso add permalink.
Both Tatara and Eijun Sawamura are guys with natural talent but they are also hard workers. Also both of them don't know their full potential and they will be living in the dark if they don't meet people that will later help develop and bring full potential of Tatara and Eijun to life.
And yes like dancing, baseball is very competitive. In Ballroom you have people working together in pair to make a result.
In Diamond no Ace you've got teams - group of people that want to achieve goal - start in Koshien National Tournament.
Similarities: - Friendship - Rivalry - Love to sport - Great animation - Young people experiencing first wins and losses. This series may be different because of sports that they cover but they still have some similarities.
Boku no Hero Academia add permalink. Despite one being a sports anime and the other being a superhero anime, both depict main characters who are persistent diamonds in the rough.
They also both feature a rivalry between the seemingly weak main character and a side character of the same age who is super talented and skilled Sawamura v Furuya, Midoriyama v Bakugo.
Shiratorizawa Gakuen Koukou add permalink. This is another amazing sports anime that is made by the same studio that made Haikyuu, it is definitely worth watching.
Personally my favourite sports anime at the moment. Chihayafuru add permalink. Chihaya has keen senses and good reflexes; Sawamura has an interesting pitch.
But they're both learning how to become better to get to where they want to be. Unlike in other sports anime where the protagonist goes from bottom to top with a few training arcs in between, these two shows progressively show hardships and failures.
The protagonists learn because of the constant losses. It makes their goals seem far away but in the large scale of things, it encourages the protagonists and makes the win seem much more satisfying for the viewers.
Baki add permalink. Both of those shows have few similarities. First it's hard workout and rivarly, other one is that main character want to realize his goals and he is evolving.
If you like Baki you should check Diamond no Ace. Of course "sport" is different here but Ansatsu Kyoushitsu add permalink.
Both feature main characters who are seemingly weak or untalented but then eventually find out that they have a unique talent that they learn to polish throughout the series.
Furthermore, both have a sort of rival aspect between the seemingly untalented main character and another character the same age as them who everyone previously thought to be perfect Nagisa v Karma, Sawamura v Furuya.
Gurazeni add permalink. Gurazeni shows the life of Pro basketballers after they graduated and have entered the sports world!
Diamond no Ace is about basketball during their high school days. Mix add permalink. Both tv series are about baseball! More similarities: - main character are stubborn and like to joke around - there are much more male characters than females - training and thinking about improvements - harsh coaches.
Hajime no Ippo add permalink. Both series have great characters, a quick paced plot, and lots of comedy between the action.
The art styles of both are unique and great, though Hajime no Ippo season 1 only. The later seasons are made later and the art was cleaned up.
Don't let that deter you though, it's a great series. While Diamond no Ace is about baseball and Hajime no Ippo is about boxing, both main characters follow a similar growth pattern.
Both are from average backgrounds and through hard work polish their diamonds in the rough. Diamond no Ace focuses on Sawamura Eijun, a pitcher scouted from a small town in Nagano to go to Seido High School, a famous school known for its strong baseball team.
He learns from his upperclassmen the value of hard work while competing with another pitcher, Furuya Satoru, to get the ace number.
Hajime no Ippo starts with Makunouchi Ippo being bullied by his delinquent classmates. After being saved by Takamura Mamoru, a professional boxer, and taught how to properly punch, he discovers that he enjoys boxing and eventually aims to become the Japan Champion.
Both are related to sports- Free is dominate by swimming where as Diamond no Ace features baseball. The sports genre of Anime is truly amazing!
It all comes down to those few seconds of you leaning into the screen with sweat on the edge of your seat wondering who will win and who will lose.
The action makes you want to scream in anticipation on both sides. However a contrast between these two Anime is that Free!
With baseball however the games can get drawn out as each inning is featured, however it shows the true connection of team playing and of working hard for a goal the main goal in most baseball Anime is reaching Koshein stadium Each unique yet still the same in how amazing they are!
Definitely a must watch on both sides. Tamayomi add permalink. Same sport, only with boys, and protagonist wants to become a pro, the series revolve around him becoming one step by step detailed.
Ace expects you to know about baseball tho at least that is the impression that I got. Inazuma Eleven add permalink. The main character of both series give off the same vibe, they both love the sport they play with all their heart, and most importantly want to play it with their friends.
Other than that the comedy is also almost the same. The only difference for me is that Inazuma Eleven is about soccer and Diamond no Ace about baseball.
Ookiku Furikabutte: Natsu no Taikai-hen add permalink. I watched both anime and both have almost similar traits in almost all aspects of baseball , except the them , where Ookiku focused tends to realistic-friendship wise , and Daiya no ace more to individuals term.
Touch add permalink. Touch is also an anime about baseball, but it's older, as it started airing in But don't be surprised or reluctant to start watching it, as it is very good.
It's long, but a nice watch and includes other genres such as comedy, romance, slice of life. I really like Adachi Mitsuru and this anime is a good adaptation of his manga with the same name.
If you heard of him or watched Cross Game, H2, you should really like this anime, as it is similar to them. All Out!! Perhaps is early to make recommendations, but so far All Out shows some similarity towards Diamond no Ace -They both give a realistic approach to sports anime, were hard work prevails over talent -Both MCs are extremely optimistic, if you like Gion then you will totally love Sawamura Eijun from DNA - Both shows seem to care so much about team work and they both have an interesting coach-team relationship -Both are produced by amazing MADHOUSE -Both have that touch of comedy that never hurts anyone : I dont know how much All Out will offer, but one thing is for sure, if you are enjoying this then you will totally fell in love with the masterpiece Diamond no Ace, a pretty underrated sports anime that deserves more attention from sports anime watchers.
Tennis no Ouji-sama add permalink. Are you a sports anime lover? Either yes or no, you are going to like both of those anime series!
Because you are going to fall in love with the characters of the series. Their appearance, their personalities, their relations with each other.
You are certainly going to like the whole team, with it's diaries, the persistence of each member, and how they surprise you in the middle of the match, especially the ace!
Both Sawamura Ejun - kun and Echizen Ryoma - kun will do surprise you, although their personalities are different. Also, both Sawamura - kun and Echizen - kun are players that have got the team's attention because of their talent, but they still needed improvements.
The excitement you are going to have while watching cannot be described in words! Major: Message add permalink. Both anime are shows about sports, and to be precise both are shows about baseball.
Similarities: - friendship - rivalry - hard training - both main characters are pitchers - sense of humour. Area no Kishi add permalink.
Both anime are very similar even if they cover different sports. First of all both MC's are training very hard and they have turning points of careers.
They are trying to do as best as they can with a little help of people around them. Similarities: - chasing high goals - friendship - rivalry - training - young people.
Second Season add permalink. The team evolves and works togethor to overcome the enemy teams. You become emotionally attached to the characters because of their effort.
The enemies are quite likeable too. If you liked Diamond no ace you will probably like haikyuu. Watch the 1st season first , it didn't let me recommend the 1st season.
Have fun! Major S5 add permalink. This first button can be found at the top of the building directly to the right of the spawn point, closest to the edge of the map.
Use the little building before it to climb up, and then the antenna to reach the roof of the taller building to find the button.
The second button needed to activate the Like a Diamond challenge is found on the edge of the map, below the large buildings. Players will need to navigate down into the destroyed basement to find the button attached to a broken pillar.
The third button is located to the right of the spawn point, in the far back right of the map, along the cliff edge. Head to the back corner and use the blue building nearby to climb up high.
From the top of this building, look toward the back corner to spot ledges along the face of the building, the button can be seen in one of these ledges.
The fourth button is found in the middle area of the map on a building with several awnings. Head to the map and look toward the rear left of the city to find the building with blue-green awnings, climb up the awnings and onto a balcony to locate this button.
The penultimate button can be found in the far back of the area, diagonally opposite the spawn point. This is right in the back corner, and up on a shelf of the building.
The final button needed to activate the Like a Diamond challenge is to the left of spawn, above where one of the shield generators is located. The majority of commercially available synthetic diamonds are yellow and are produced by so-called high-pressure high-temperature HPHT processes.
Other colors may also be reproduced such as blue, green or pink, which are a result of the addition of boron or from irradiation after synthesis.
Another popular method of growing synthetic diamond is chemical vapor deposition CVD. The growth occurs under low pressure below atmospheric pressure.
It involves feeding a mixture of gases typically 1 to 99 methane to hydrogen into a chamber and splitting them to chemically active radicals in a plasma ignited by microwaves , hot filament , arc discharge , welding torch or laser.
A diamond simulant is a non-diamond material that is used to simulate the appearance of a diamond, and may be referred to as diamante.
Cubic zirconia is the most common. The gemstone moissanite silicon carbide can be treated as a diamond simulant, though more costly to produce than cubic zirconia.
Both are produced synthetically. Diamond enhancements are specific treatments performed on natural or synthetic diamonds usually those already cut and polished into a gem , which are designed to better the gemological characteristics of the stone in one or more ways.
These include laser drilling to remove inclusions, application of sealants to fill cracks, treatments to improve a white diamond's color grade, and treatments to give fancy color to a white diamond.
Coatings are increasingly used to give a diamond simulant such as cubic zirconia a more "diamond-like" appearance. One such substance is diamond-like carbon —an amorphous carbonaceous material that has some physical properties similar to those of the diamond.
Advertising suggests that such a coating would transfer some of these diamond-like properties to the coated stone, hence enhancing the diamond simulant.
Techniques such as Raman spectroscopy should easily identify such a treatment. Early diamond identification tests included a scratch test relying on the superior hardness of diamond.
This test is destructive, as a diamond can scratch another diamond, and is rarely used nowadays. Instead, diamond identification relies on its superior thermal conductivity.
Electronic thermal probes are widely used in the gemological centers to separate diamonds from their imitations. These probes consist of a pair of battery-powered thermistors mounted in a fine copper tip.
One thermistor functions as a heating device while the other measures the temperature of the copper tip: if the stone being tested is a diamond, it will conduct the tip's thermal energy rapidly enough to produce a measurable temperature drop.
This test takes about two to three seconds. Whereas the thermal probe can separate diamonds from most of their simulants, distinguishing between various types of diamond, for example synthetic or natural, irradiated or non-irradiated, etc.
Those techniques are also used for some diamonds simulants, such as silicon carbide, which pass the thermal conductivity test. Optical techniques can distinguish between natural diamonds and synthetic diamonds.
They can also identify the vast majority of treated natural diamonds. Laboratories use techniques such as spectroscopy, microscopy and luminescence under shortwave ultraviolet light to determine a diamond's origin.
Several methods for identifying synthetic diamonds can be performed, depending on the method of production and the color of the diamond.
CVD diamonds can usually be identified by an orange fluorescence. Screening devices based on diamond type detection can be used to make a distinction between diamonds that are certainly natural and diamonds that are potentially synthetic.
Those potentially synthetic diamonds require more investigation in a specialized lab. Occasionally, large thefts of diamonds take place.
The gang broke through a perimeter fence and raided the cargo hold of a Swiss-bound plane. The gang have since been arrested and large amounts of cash and diamonds recovered.
The identification of stolen diamonds presents a set of difficult problems. Rough diamonds will have a distinctive shape depending on whether their source is a mine or from an alluvial environment such as a beach or river—alluvial diamonds have smoother surfaces than those that have been mined.
Determining the provenance of cut and polished stones is much more complex. The Kimberley Process was developed to monitor the trade in rough diamonds and prevent their being used to fund violence.
Before exporting, rough diamonds are certificated by the government of the country of origin. Some countries, such as Venezuela, are not party to the agreement.
The Kimberley Process does not apply to local sales of rough diamonds within a country. Diamonds may be etched by laser with marks invisible to the naked eye.
Lazare Kaplan , a US-based company, developed this method. However, whatever is marked on a diamond can readily be removed.
Diamonds have been treasured as gemstones since their use as religious icons in ancient India. Their usage in engraving tools also dates to early human history.
In , the French scientist Antoine Lavoisier used a lens to concentrate the rays of the sun on a diamond in an atmosphere of oxygen , and showed that the only product of the combustion was carbon dioxide , proving that diamond is composed of carbon.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the mineral. For the gemstone, see Diamond gemstone. Allotrope of carbon often used as a gemstone and an abrasive.
The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit.
Main article: Material properties of diamond. See also: Crystallographic defects in diamond. Main article: Diamond color. Main article: Extraterrestrial diamonds.
A round brilliant cut diamond set in a ring. Main article: Diamond gemstone. Main articles: Diamond cutting and Diamond cut.
See also: List of diamond mines and Exploration diamond drilling. Play media. Main articles: Kimberley Process , Blood diamond , and Child labour in the diamond industry.
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Washington Post. Retrieved October 16, Astronomy magazine. Retrieved September 25, April Diamond-like glass". Retrieved September 26, Jewelrymaking through history.
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